Transit Orientated Development (TOD) is an urban development approach that seeks to maximize the provision of services and infrastructure within close proximity to transport links. This involves the commitment of the National Planning Frameworks (NPF) to compact growth, particularly in the transport, housing and employment sectors so as to conform with United Nations Sustainable Growth Goals. Calthorpe (1993) describes TOD as the development and delivery of communities designed to reduce car dependence, by encouraging and enabling people to live near transport services. The National Economic and Social Council (2019) advise a strict adherence to the following guidelines, when undertaking TOD:
1. The decision to apply TOD should be made from the outset of a development. Initial plans need to take account of the density of the development and the transport connections as well as social considerations such as the provision and location of amenities and the tenure and affordability mix of the development.
2. A tailored institutional set-up must be created, even temporarily, to plan and oversee the entire project ensuring that the considerations outlined above are applied. This body must have the necessary planning and investment powers to carry out the project.
3. Adequate funding mechanisms are required to ensure the necessary transport and infrastructure be delivered ahead of demand. Taking the example of Adamstown, County Dublin (Bradsky et al. 2008), there was an agreement from the consultation process between private developers and other involved parties that the high-speed rail connection to Dublin City be up and running before the beginning of the development.
When these guidelines are followed, many planning issues can be avoided such as urban sprawl and regional isolation. Similarly, there are many potential benefits that can arise such as improvements to individual welfare and quality of life for people living in the area.